First step: Silk Reeling
The silk is extracted from the cocoon and becomes the raw material for the fabric. A cocoon can extract about 1000 meters of cocoon silk, and some cocoons and silk will be merged into raw silk. The process of extracting silkworm cocoon out of silk is called reeling. The original method of silk reeling is to soak cocoons in hot pot soup and wire them by hand. The pot and basket are the original silk reeling equipment. The process of extracting silkworm cocoon out of silk is called reeling.
Second step: weaving
After processing, raw silk is divided into warp and weft threads and interwoven with certain organization rules to form silk fabric, that is, weaving process. The production processes of all kinds of silk fabrics are not the same. They can be generally divided into two categories: raw and cooked.
Raw weaving is that the warp and weft yarn is made into fabric without dyed and dyed. It is called "green silk", and then the dyed silk is dyed into finished products. This method of production is low cost and short process, which is the main way of silk production.
Ripening refers to the dyeing of warp and weft threads before weaving, and after finishing, no need to be dyed or dyed until the finished products are finished. This method is mainly used for the production of high grade silk fabrics, such as brocade, taffeta, etc.
Before weaving, it is necessary to prepare well, such as soaking the sericin softening, improving the properties of the product, blending yarn and thread, and warping, winding and so on. At the same time, because the moisture absorption of silk is strong, moisture-proof work should be done well. At present, the main automatic looms used in silk weaving are: the water jet looms for the production of synthetic filament fabrics and the rapier looms in the production of polyweft jacquard fabrics.
Third step: dyeing and finishing
Printing process plays an important role in the production of silk. Because only with the use of dyeing and finishing technology, we can reappear our favorite colors and patterns on the blank, so that the fabric is more artistic. This process mainly includes four processes: refining, dyeing, printing and finishing of raw silk and fabric.
Silk consists of two monofilaments, whose main body is silk and the outer layer encased sericin. Most of the pigments, oils, waxes and inorganic salts exist in sericin. These impurities have great influence on printing and dyeing, so they must be removed before dyeing. In the long-term practice, people have mastered the properties of sericin which is easily dissolved in hot water by chemical agent or enzyme, and use the weakness of sericin to heat the billet or raw silk into a mixed solution containing soap (or synthetic detergent) and soda (sodium carbonate), and hydrolyze the sericin after heat. After such refining, remove sericin and preserve silk, and remove impurities such as pigment, fat, wax and so on, so as to obtain pure white silk products. The raw silk after degumming is called the cooked silk. The degree of degumming of raw silk depends on production requirements.
The bright white silk will enter the dyeing stage after being refined. Dyeing is to make dyes and silkworms, green silk and other chemical reactions, so that the Silk Dyed with a variety of color technology. Because silk is a protein fiber and is not alkali resistant, dyeing should be carried out in acid or near neutral dyes. At present, the main dyes used for silk fabrics are acid dyes, reactive dyes, direct dyes and vat dyes. Dyeing with acid dyes is brighter. After dyeing with cationic fixing agent, the washing fastness of products can be improved. Dyeing with reactive dyes has good washing fastness on silk. The dyeing methods of fabrics vary with the variety of fabric, such as crepe or yarn dyed with rope or overflow, while textile, silk and satin fabrics are dyed or dyed in flat.
After all, the color is monotonous. Besides dyeing, people also use printing technology to make silk colorful. Printing refers to a process of printing dyestuffs on the fabric according to the designs and colors. Commonly used printing processes include direct printing, printing and dyeing. Direct printing refers to the direct printing of color paste through screen printing plates on silk fabrics. It is one of the basic printing methods and can be printed together with various dyes. Discharge printing, also known as carved plate printing, is a process using the extraction and dyeing of a white agent. Before printing and dyeing, the silk fabrics are dyed with acid dyes and reactive dyes with azo structure, and then on the color silk, the carvings (extraction) made from the carvings containing the destruction pigment are printed on the pattern. After steam steam, the ground color of the printing pulp is made. It presents white, called "carvings white".
1. buying and buying skills
(1) distinguish from appearance: the appearance of high quality silk has pearl color and has diffuse refraction to light. Clean few impurities, silk road orderly and orderly; and the quality of the silk is often due to the addition of chemicals such as bleaching agent, and its appearance is pale white, not luster and luster, more impurities, silk road confusion.
(2) from the sense of touch: high quality silkworm feel soft, slippery, rich and elastic, no hard mass, but inferior silk is rough and flexible, no moist, cocoon stem, cocoon piece, cocoon piece, pupa molting is relatively more. Silk with oily or mildew smell is inferior.
3. Distinguish from burning state: when the real silk is burning, it will turn to ash immediately and burn fast. After burning, it is loose gray and has a hairy burning smell.
4. Distinguish from fiber strength: the better the strength of silk, the better the quality. As long as the silkworm thread is stretched, the longer the quality, the better the quality. Generally good mulberry silk can be pulled to more than 100 centimeters.
Use 84 disinfectant to dissolve the test. If it is pure silk, put it into 84 disinfectant, after 35 minutes, the silk will gradually dissolve by disinfectant.