In ancient times, silk was a kind of textile woven. Due to the expansion of textile materials in modern times, all textiles woven with man-made or natural filament fibers can be called generalized silk. And do you know the silk weaving process? This article will introduce to you.
The original method of silk reeling is to soak the silkworm cocoons in the hot water soup, draw silk by hand, and wind them on the silk baskets to become the raw material of the woven silk. Pots and baskets are the original tools of silk reeling. A silkworm cocoon can extract about 1000 meters long silk, and several cocoon silk are combined into raw silk.
Silk reeling is a main process in the silk making process. According to the requirements of product specifications, the cocoon silk of several cooked cocoons is separated and combined into raw silk. There are many methods of silk reeling. According to the different position of cocoon during the silk reeling process, it can be divided into the kinds of floating mites, semi-sinking and sinking. The floating and sinking of silkworm pupa mainly depends on the amount of water absorption in the sputum cavity after boiling.
After being processed, the raw silk is divided into warp and weft, and interwoven with each other according to a certain organization law to form a silk fabric, which is the weaving process. The production process of all kinds of silk fabrics is not the same. It can be divided into two types: raw weaving and Yarn-dyed weaving.
(1) Raw fabric: the warp and weft yarns are made into fabrics without dyeing, and then the green silk is refined and dyed into finished products. This kind of production mode has low cost and short process, which is the main mode used in silk weaving production.
(2) Yarn-dyed weaving refers to the dyeing of warp and weft before weaving, and the finished product is formed after weaving without further refining and dyeing. This method is mostly used in the production of advanced silk fabrics, such as brocade, taffeta, etc. Before weaving, preparations should be made, such as impregnation to soften sericin, blending and twisting to improve product performance, warping and winding, etc. At the same time, due to the strong moisture absorption of silk, moisture-proof work should be done well. The main automatic looms used in silk production are: water jet looms for synthetic filament fabrics and rapier looms for multicolor jacquard fabrics.
Dyeing and arrangement refers to the process of chemical treatment of textile materials (fibers, yarns and fabrics). Dyeing and arrangement together with spinning, weaving or knitting production to form the whole process of textile production, the quality of dyeing and arrangement has an important impact on the use value of textiles. The process mainly includes the processes of refining, bleaching, dyeing, printing and arrangement of raw silk and fabric.
The silk is composed of two monofilaments, the main body of which is silk fibroin, and the outer layer is wrapped with sericin. Most of the pigments, oils, waxes and inorganic salts are present in the sericin. These impurities have a great influence on the effect of printing, so they must be removed before dyeing. In the long-term practice, people have mastered the characteristics that sericin is easily dissolved in hot water by the action of chemical agents or enzymes. And by using the weakness of sericin, heating the raw silk in a mixture of soap and soda ash, sericin will be hydrolyzed after heating. After such refining, the sericin is removed to preserve the silk fibroin, and impurities such as pigments, fats, and wax are removed, thereby obtaining a silk product with a white color. The raw silk after degumming is called yarn-dyed silk. The degree of degumming of raw silk must be determined according to production requirements.
The degummed silk fibers should be bleached to remove the natural pigment. Otherwise, when dyed in a light color, the color of the finished product changes due to the presence of natural pigments. Silk can be bleached by various bleaching agents. Thiourea dioxide is a kind of reduced bleaching agent. Its BOD and COD values are low, so it can be used as a non-toxic bleaching agent with low pollution. However, the application of TDU is limited due to its high price
After the white silk of the color is refined, it enters the dyeing stage. Dyeing is a process in which dyes and silkworms are chemically reacted to allow the silk to be dyed in various colors. Since silk is a protein fiber and is not alkali-resistant, the dyeing should be carried out in an acidic or near-neutral dyeing solution. The main dyes used for silk fabrics are: acid dyes, reactive dyes, direct dyes and vat dyes. The color of the product dyed with acid dyes is bright. After dyeing, it can be treated with cationic fixing agent to improve the washing fastness of the product. Reactive dyes have good washing fastness on silk. The dyeing methods of fabrics vary with the variety of fabrics.
Printing refers to a process in which a dye is printed on a fabric in accordance with a designed flower color. Commonly used printing processes include direct printing, discharge printing, and anti-dye printing. Direct printing means that the color paste is printed directly on the silk through a screen printing plate. It is one of the most basic printing methods. Discharge printing is a process of dyeing with a whitening agent. Before printing and dyeing, the silk fabric is dyed with an acid dye with an azo structure, and then the coloring fabric is printed with a whitening agent containing a destructive pigment.After steaming, the printing portion is white. Anti-dye printing is to print the anti-white paste on the silk fabric according to the pattern, and then dye it after drying. Because the pattern is in the anti-white paste, it will not be dyed, and the rest will be colored.
After the silk has been refined, dyed and printed, the fabric can be finally finished. The finishing process mainly solves the problems of moisture, wrinkles and unevenness of the door widths left in the previous processes, making silk fabric become softness and increasing its taking function. The main methods are mechanical finishing and chemical finishing. The treated fabrics are not only more suitable for wearing, but also broaden the consumption field of silk.
After the above treatment, the silk can be made into silk clothing, silk pillowcases, silk pajamas, silk eye masks, etc. Chinese silk is famous for its excellent quality, exquisite color and rich cultural connotation.